Kun Tan Danfeng Sun Wenjun Dou Bin Wang Qiangqiang Sun Xiaojie Liu Haiyan Zhang Yang Lan Fei Lun
The accurate mapping and analysis of coastal wetlands and their dynamics are crucial for local coastal wetland protection, sustainable social development, and biodiversity preservation. However, detailed mapping and comprehensive analysis of coastal wetlands remain scarce. In this study, we utilized Landsat-TM/OLI remote sensing data and employed the linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) method to map changes in coastal wetlands and analyze their dynamics in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) from 1991 to 2020. Our mapping results demonstrate high accuracy and are consistent with previous studies, boasting an overall accuracy exceeding 96%. During the period of 1991–2020, the YRD estuary expanded by approximately 8744.58 ha towards the east and north. The vegetation of P. australis and S. salsa underwent transformation due to agricultural practices or degradation to bare flats. Moreover, these areas saw extensive colonization by the invasive species S. alterniflora. Over the three decades, S. alterniflora expanded approximately 5 km along the coast, significantly impacting the local coastal wetland biodiversity. Furthermore, a considerable number of natural wetlands transitioned into human-made wetlands from 1991 to 2014. In particular, bare flats underwent substantial changes, transforming into aquaculture sites and salt exploitation areas. These dynamics in coastal wetlands had significant repercussions on local ecosystems, including wetland fragmentation, biodiversity depletion, and water pollution. However, post-2014, numerous wetland protection strategies were implemented, resulting in the restoration of natural wetlands. Detailed wetland mapping and dynamic analysis furnish valuable insights for the management, protection, and sustainable utilization of diverse coastal wetlands.
Keywords: coastal wetland mapping; dynamic analysis; endmembers (EMs); linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA); the Yellow River Delta (YRD)